Understanding how your child learns allows you to offer more effective help with homework or revision planning for school or public exams.
Psychologists categorise learning styles in four ways:
A visual learner memorises through pictures. They enjoy drawing, reading maps charts and diagrams, doing jigsaw puzzles and construction tasks. They like to visualise a story while reading and can often be a bit of a day dreamer. Using different coloured ‘post it’ notes or coloured highlighter pens, as well as creating mind maps of key facts are effective ways to support a visual learner. Reinforcement of what they need to know through watching films or plays works well.
A kinaesthetic learner processes knowledge through physical sensations, is active and not able to sit still for long and often communicates through body language and gestures. Prefers to demonstrate, rather than speaking or writing what they know. They enjoy sports and being actively engaged in tasks, rather than listening. Hands-on practical activities, walking around while studying, chewing, doodling and fiddling, all help these children to learn.
An auditory learner thinks in words and verbalises concepts, has an excellent memory for words if presented phonetically, is often musical and good at word games. Dictation or recording work to be memorised, so it can be played back is effective, as is reading aloud or listening to audio books.
A logical learner thinks conceptually, likes to explore patterns and relationships, does mental arithmetic easily, is often inquisitive and asks lots of questions. They prefer routine and consistency, but are not so strong on the creative side. They enjoy computer aided design and games of strategy or experiments with a purpose. Non-fiction books will appeal, as will word and number puzzles.
Tips For Parents When Offering Advice And Support To Teenagers Who Are Revising At Home
Helping your youngster with proper planning and preparation is the key to successful revision at home. Here are a few tips for parents which will assist you in making sure that your teenager is making the most of the time available while studying for approaching examinations at home.
Create a revision programme.
Plan the time you have available carefully by creating a timetable. Make sure you are giving equal time to subjects which you enjoy and dislike, perhaps intermingling the two by rewarding time spent on revising a subject you find difficult, with some follow-on time spent on a subject you enjoy. Remember it is human nature to focus on the things we can do well and enjoy, putting aside the things that we find to be a challenge. However, it is only by practice and time allocated to the things we find challenging, that we will improve and get to grips with things we find more difficult.
Allow time for breaks. Your brain needs food and drink to function, so stop for regular snacks and have some water to sip while you are at your desk.
Move around if you have been sitting to improve your circulation and give your brain a rest by having some fun. Taking light exercise and getting some fresh air will also be of benefit and will relieve some of the stress and tension as the exams draw closer.
Take account of the order in which you will sit the examinations when organising the revision timetable. Allow time for both revision and reviewing the topic at least once before the examination arrives.
Concentration has been defined as “the ability to direct one’s thinking in whatever direction one would intend”.
Our ability to concentrate depends on:
Commitment. We need to make a personal commitment to put in the effort needed to do the task in the way which we realistically plan to do it. If we just play at it in a half-hearted manner then it is much more difficult to take the task and ourselves seriously.
Enthusiasm for the task. If we are interested in the task and enjoy doing it, then we find it easy to motivate ourselves to start. Once started, our feelings of involvement in the activity keep us going – we want to do it.
Skill at doing the task. Knowing how to do something gives confidence that our efforts will be successful, so we don’t have to deal with anxiety about will this work or not. Anxiety tends to impair concentration.
Our emotional and physical state. When we are in good physical condition – i.e. feeling rested, relaxed and comfortable – and our emotions are calm and benevolent, then we tend to be positive about things. This in turn raises self-esteem, which makes us more able to concentrate, if only because we don’t have to worry about how awful we are or life is.
Our psychological state. For example, if we are in an obsessional or distracted state our thoughts are pre-occupied, leaving little mental space to think about anything else.
Our environment. It is much more difficult to concentrate if our surroundings keep intruding on our awareness, perhaps because it is noisy, too hot or too cold, the furniture is uncomfortable or the people around us are stressing out.
We can all concentrate for varied lengths of time, usually dependent on how much we enjoy doing something. However as a general rule, slots of 45 minutes to an hour, with 10-15 minute breaks in-between will mean that you get far more done during a whole day session.
Get plenty of sleep and take some time to relax, as this will facilitate better concentration during your timetabled study periods.
Learn to notice when your mind is starting to wander and STOP, take a break, returning with renewed focus on the task.
Save your texting, Facebook, instant messaging for during these breaks and turn off or hide your phone in-between.
Know the syllabus
Make sure that you have asked your teacher for a copy of the syllabus or curriculum content on which you will be examined. This will mean that you can order your timetabled study periods to make sure that you are focussing on the areas which will be tested and not wasting time with those which will not.
Know your Learning Style
Everyone has their own distinct learning style. Some learn by reading and then asking themselves questions, others learn by making condensed notes and memorising them, others learn by the associations they make to the material, and yet others retain a pictorial image of the material. Once you know your learning style, organise your revision material to suit it: if you don’t, learning will be more of a struggle than it need be and your concentration will suffer. Having your own learning style involves having your own internal ‘language’: briefly, this means the words you use to translate and understand the material so that it has meaning for you. If you don’t know how you learn best, try to analyse your experience either with someone who knows how you work, or with someone with expertise in this area. There is more information about learning styles in the website section education tips for ages 7-13.
Review what you already know
Research suggests that reviewing what you have already revised goes a long way to reinforcing your knowledge of the information. The more often that you can do this, the more likely it is that the information will be retained.
Test your knowledge
Past papers are an excellent way not only to test your knowledge, but also to identify trends in types of question that arise on a regular basis. Public examinations in particular will follow trends in the format of questions to test each part of the syllabus, so learning to identify types of question and how to answer them from past papers will assist you to select the types of questions that suit your personal preference and hence optimise your performance in the examination. Passing examinations is a skill in itself and it is very important to be able to identify and answer the ‘right’ questions for you.
Time keeping is an important examination skill so make sure that you only allow yourself the same time as you will have in the exam to complete the test paper questions. It is no good patting yourself on the back for a perfect question answer if you took one hour to answer a question which is only allocated 20 minutes.
Make sure that you ask your teachers to mark your past paper questions, so that you start to get to grips with what will be required in terms of the marking scheme for different types of question. If it is during the holidays, allocate your own marking scheme. Understanding how the examiners will award marks for each question will help you to optimise your grade potential. Learn to plan your answers carefully so you know where the marks will be allocated. If a question has 3 marks for example, there is no point wasting time giving a 10 point answer. Ask yourself what are the 3 key points they are looking for?
Just because they spend hours on end in their bedroom with the door shut, surfacing occasionally for food and drink, does not necessarily mean that they are using their time effectively or remaining focussed on their studies! Finding ‘an excuse’ to pop in occasionally will give you an opportunity to evaluate if they are using their time wisely and to offer advice as to how they might focus better if this is a concern.
Parents need to take an interest at the end of each study day by asking how the day has gone and what they feel they have achieved. Ask if they are managing to stick to the timetable.
Study space should be quiet, well-organised and not infront of the TV. Loud music and conversation can be distracting, but soft music in moderation can work for some. Working at a desk or a table is better, as it is important to define work and relaxation space.
Make sure, before you start, that you are well-organised and have all your books and revision materials to hand.
Incentives are a good way to keep motivation. Allow yourself small rewards for reaching goals that you have set. There will be times when it gets hard to motivate yourself. Learn to recognise when you are feeling tense and allow yourself a break to take some exercise or have some fun.
When you start to find revision tedious, working with a friend to test your knowledge can alleviate some of this. Discussing answers to questions can make revision more interesting. Create a mind map of your knowledge in particular areas to allow for some variety.
Set aside one or more specific periods in the day when you are allowed to worry. It can help to set them just before something that you know you will do, to ensure that you stop worrying on time – e.g. before a favourite TV programme, or a meal-time. Whenever an anxiety or distracting thought enters your mind during the day, banish it until your next worry time, and re-focus on to what you are supposed to be doing. Some people find it helpful to write down the banished thought: it is easier to banish a thought if you are sure you won’t have forgotten it when you get to your worry time. It is important that you keep your worry time(s), and make yourself worry for the full time. If you find that you can’t fill the time available, then make a conscious decision to reduce it.
You may notice, particularly if you keep a list, that certain things keep reappearing: this is a fairly clear indication that you need to do something about them.